The following instructions will lay out an installation of MySQL on Solaris using the MySQL Optimal Configuration Architecture (MOCA) for someone knowledgeable in MySQL/Solaris administration. MOCA is a set of best practices I put together to lay out a guidelines for installing and configuring a MySQL database server. MOCA is designed for someone with experience with MySQL, it is not for someone brand new to MySQL.
If you are new to MySQL or to Solaris, I recommend using the default package install for MySQL. The MySQL default install is recommended for someone new to MySQL or the operating system platform. If the default package install makes more sense for you, then you can stop reading. This install is for MySQL 5.1.33 but it would be the same steps for any 5.1.xx installation.
Why Perform a Manual Install
The default install with MySQL is great for users new to MySQL. It is simple, requires a few point and clicks and you are up and running. The problem with a default install is that it is designed to be a very simple install and take minimum resources. The default install also puts MySQL files in different locations on the filesystem dependent on the OS release and platform. The default install is not how an experienced DBA would want to set up a production database environment. It is much better to be able to control the layout and configuration of the database software for production database environments and for platforms where multiple MySQL servers may be installed in the future.
- This install assumes you have a fundamental understanding of Solaris and have an understanding of MySQL database administration fundamentals. Oracle DBAs will find this installation very similar to the concepts of the Optimal Flexible Architecture (OFA).
- For experienced MySQL DBAs a manual install is much better. For this purpose I created a best practices configuration and white paper called MOCA (MySQL Optimal Configuration Architecture). This is based on DBA best practices and should be very similar to Oracle, DB2 and SQL Server production DBAs. There are certain fundamental truths about how database servers should be installed, configured and managed. My MOCA whitepaper addresses these fundamental truths. This manual install will follow MOCA standards and conventions.
- Separating database software from other software.
- Separating data and index files, log files for recovery, administration and backup files.
- Developing standard naming conventions.
- Defines a flexible configuration that can support multiple database servers on same platform.
- A consistent configuration for multiple servers and versions of MySQL database software.
This installation looks more complex than it is. I use this configuration for all beginning MySQL DBA classes.
- Remove old versions of MySQL if they exist. Setup up operating system user mysql and mysql user environment.
- Set up directories and directory permissions for all MySQL data files.
- Setup MySQL software and install MySQL software as mysql operating system user (not as root). Configure the my.cnf configuration file.
- Create the mysql database (mysql_install_db) and setup the security environment (mysql_secure_installation). Start the mysql database server.
- Test the shutdown and startup of the database server.
The environment for this installation is below: Mac OS 10(Leopard) running VM Fusion with Solaris 10 - Downloaded DVD iso image from www.sun.com website. I installed the Solaris 10 05/08 x86/x64 image for this demo (sol-10-u5-ga-x86-dvd.iso). I also used MySQL 5.1 - Downloaded from dev.mysql.com.
- Before installing MySQL on my platform, make sure there are no previous versions of MySQL preinstalled. Unless you want the older version of MySQL, your life will be much easier if you remove any previous releases.
- Read through this installation a few times before starting.
Look for existing MySQL software
This install uses 5.1.33, these installation procedures can be used for any 5.1.x installation. Dependent on the version of Solaris, different packages may need to be installed or removed (old MySQL installations).
Check to see if you see MySQL on your current system.
# grep mysql /etc/passwd #
# find /usr/local -name '*mysql*' - print # look here for MacOS, Unix/Linux
# find /var -name '*mysql*' - print # good place to start with Solaris
# find / -name "*mysql*' - print # look everywhere for MySQL installations
VM Fusion Choices for Installing Solaris 10
My choices for installing Solaris 10 in a VM Fusion environment. During the installation you will be asked to hit F2 to continue. On a MAC that will be EscapeKey-2 or FN-F2. Solaris Interactive US-English Networked - DHCP IPv6 - No You may need to specify the amount of disk space to use. I allocated 10228 MB.
- You should now be able to log in as root. With Solaris choose the Java Desktop Environment or the Common Desktop Environment (CDE), this is a personal preference.
Removing older versions of MySQL
Check for MySQL packages installed and remove them.
# pkginfo | grep mysql
The following packages SUNWmysqlr, SUNWmysqlt, SUNWmysqlu were found and removed.
# pkgrm SUNWmysqlr
# pkgrm SUNWmysqlt
# pkgrm SUNWmysqlu
Remove old MySQL files from common directories.
# sudo rm /usr/local/mysql
# sudo rm -rf /Library/StartupItems/MySQLCOM/
Set up the mysql user. Start by checking to see if there is an existing MySQL user.
# grep mysql /etc/passwd
Setup new mysql user if one does not exist. If a mysql user does exist, set up a password, default shell, default directory, etc.
No mysql user was found so I added one. Add the mysql group, mysql user, password and home directory.
# groupadd -g 300 mysql
# useradd -u 300 -g 300 -d /export/home/mysql -s /usr/bin/bash -c "MySQL DBA" mysql
# passwd mysql
# mkdir /export/home/mysql
# chown -R mysql:mysql /export/home/mysql
Login and verify the mysql user setup
# exec login mysql (or su - mysql)
Then define a default profile file using your favorite text editor.
--- .bash_profile file ------
export MYSQL_BASE MYSQL_HOME
--- end of .bash_profile file -------
Set your environment by sourcing your profile file.
$ cd $MYSQL_HOME
$ . ./.bash_profile
Go to http://dev.mysql.com and go to downloads. Find the distributions and choose the install release you want. I chose 5.1.33. I prefer a manual install so I choose the Solaris Tar Packages the Solaris 10 64-bit install. Select a mirror. On the Select a Mirror page, I choose "No thanks, just take me to the downloads"!
MySQL Directory Organization
Organize how MySQL files and software will be located:
/opt/mysql/5.1.33 - Symbolic link to software directory location
/db01/mysql/mysql01/data - data directory
/db02/mysql/mysql01/binlogs - location of binary log files
/db03/mysql/mysql01/admin - main administration directory
/db04/mysql/mysql01/backups - location of backup files
I created the following directories to download the MySQL software in /opt/mysql/5.1.33.
# mkdir -p /opt/mysql/5.1.33
# export MYSQL_NAME=mysql01
Setup data directory structure
# mkdir -p /db01/mysql/$MYSQL_NAME/data
Setup mysql administration directory structure
# mkdir -p /db03/mysql/$MYSQL_NAME
# mkdir /db03/mysql/$MYSQL_NAME/logs
# mkdir /db03/mysql/$MYSQL_NAME/errors
# mkdir /db03/mysql/$MYSQL_NAME/sql
# mkdir /db03/mysql/$MYSQL_NAME/startup
# mkdir /db03/mysql/$MYSQL_NAME/run
Setup binary log structure
# mkdir -p /db02/mysql/$MYSQL_NAME/binlogs
Setup backup directory structure for backups and exports.
# mkdir -p /db04/mysql/$MYSQL_NAME
# mkdir /db04/mysql/$MYSQL_NAME/backups
# mkdir /db04/mysql/$MYSQL_NAME/exports
Set permissions and ownership for MySQL file directories.
# chmod -R 750 /db*/mysql/* /opt/mysql/*
# chown -R mysql:mysql /db*/mysql/* /opt/mysql/*
Before going further
All following commands are run as the mysql OS user. In the /opt/mysql directory unzip and untar the MySQL software as the mysql OS user.
$ cd /opt/mysql
$ gunzip mysql-5.1.33-solaris10-64bit.tar.gz
$ tar xvf mysql-5.1.33-solaris10-64bit.tar
$ ln -s mysql-5.1.33-solaris10-64bit 5.1.33
Be careful with the my.cnf configuration file.
At the operating system prompt you can type the following command. If you scroll down you will find the default search path. All commands like mysql_secure_installation, mysql, mysql_install_db, etc. all look in a search path for the configuration file. Make sure any program is finding the right configuration file in the search path. Here are commands that will show you the search path:
$ mysql --help | more
$ mysqld --help --verbose | more
Use one of the sample configuration files provided with the distribution to get started.
$ cp $MYSQL_HOME/support-files/my-small-cnf /dbadmin/mysql/mysql/startup/my.cnf
#port = 3426
Add the following entries to the my.cnf file to the [client] group.
#port = 3426
#socket = /dbadmin/mysql/mysql01/run/mysql.sock
$ cd $MYSQL_HOME
$ ln -s /dbadmin/mysql/mysql01/startup/my.cnf my.cnf
Create the mysql database files for the MySQL instance. This will create the default database schemas and database files.
$ scripts/mysql_install_db --datadir=/db01/mysql/mysql01/data --basedir=$MYSQL_HOME
Verify data files and directories have been created in the datadir directory.
$ cd /db01/mysql/mysql01/data
Start the MySQL database server pointing to the defined locations.
$ cd /opt/mysql/5.1.33
$ bin/mysqld_safe --defaults-file=/dbadmin/mysql/mysql01/startup/my.cnf &
If there are socket errors:
i.e. MySQL client cannot star twith the error "cannot connect to the MySQL server through socket
MySQL needs to write to a socket. If you don't specify one, a default one is chosen which may not have the appropriate permissions. You can specify the socket file in the command line as below. Make sure the permissions are set properly (owned by mysql).
$ mysql -uroot -p -socket=/dbadmin/mysql/mysql01/run/mysql.sock
$ ps -ef |grep mysql
Clean up the database server by adding passwords and getting rid of anonymous users. If there are problems with the mysql_secure_installation script, then set the password manually and get rid of the anonymous accounts and any accounts with no passwords.
$ cd $MYSQL_HOME
$ mysqladmin --defaults-file=/dbadmin/mysql/mysql01/startup/my.cnf shutdown
$ cd $MYSQL_HOME
$ bin/mysqld_safe --defaults-file= /dbadmin/mysql/mysql01/startup/my.cnf